A mother will have two or three babies at once, but can have up to six young.
Unlike other lemurs, the black-and-white ruffed lemur gives birth in nests made from twigs and leaves, which are well-hidden in trees, 10 to 20 metres above the ground. Here the young will remain whilst the mother goes off to forage. At just four months of age, the young are independent and are just as active as adults.
In groups, the black-and-white ruffed lemur produces a chorus of deep, barking, alarm calls that can be heard from great distances on a still night, and it calls with a wailing howl when defending its territory.